MANDATE IN MOROLAND
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE PHILLIPINE ISLANDS
THE SULTAN OF SULU
Being the Complete Renunciation by the Latter of his
Pretensions of Sovereignty and a Definition of his Status
Zamboanga, March 22, 1915
NOTE. – Prior to American occupation the Sultanate of Sulu had been for more than 400 years an independent sovereignty; during the latter portion of the Spanish regime the Sultanate had partially relinquished the exercise of that sovereignty as to foreign relations and to a lesser degree as concerned the port of Jolo and the four other points occupied by Spanish military garrisons; a temporary sovereignty, partial but nevertheless de facto, existed and was recognized by the Bates treaty in the term ‘the Government of the Sultan,’ to which the American authorities were by that agreement required to turn over for trial cases ‘where crimes and offenses are committed by Moros against Moros’ (Art. IX).
The abrogation of the Bates treaty was premised upon other matters than the de jure sovereignty of the Sultan, who subsequently neither by conquest nor otherwise lost or relinquished his claims to sovereignty so far as concerned internal affairs of government of the Sulu Archipelago until he signed this agreement of March 22, 1915, at Zamboanga.
Copy of the agreement of August 20, 1899, between Gen. John C. Bates, United States Army, and the Sultan of Sulu (the Bates treaty) also herewith.
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILLIPINE ISLANDS
DEPARTMENT OF MINDANAO AND SULU,
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR
Zamboanga, P.I., March 22, 1915
The governor of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, Frank W. Carpenter, duly authorized by His Excellency the Governor General, and the Sultan of Sulu, Hadji Mohammad Jamalul Kiram, together with other officers of the government, as well as various councilors of the Sultan, after due discussion of the declarations of the Governor General and president of the Phillipine Commission, Luke E. Wright, and the said Sultan of Sulu, and their respective associates, in certain hearings held in Manila on July 19, 20, and 26, 1904, following the abrogation of the so-called Bates treaty by the President of the United States, March 21, 1904, reach the following mutual understanding of the result of said hearings:
Whereas the Sultan of Sulu is the titular spiritual head of the Mohammedan Church in the Sulu Archipelago, with all the rights and privelages which under the Government of the United States of America may be excercised by such an ecclesiastical authority, and subject to the same limitations which apply to the supreme spiritual heads of all other religions existing in American territory, including the right to solicit and receive voluntary popular contributions for the support of the clergy, rites, and other necessary lawful expenses of an ecclesiastical character.
The Sultan of Sulu, on his own account and in behalf of his adherents and people in the Sulu Archipelago and elsewhere within American territory, without any reservation or limitation whatsoever, ratifies and confirms his recognition of the sovereignty of the United States of America, and the exercise by his Excellency the Governor General and the representatives of that Government in Mindanao and Sulu of all the attributes of sovereign government that are exercised elsewhere in American territory and dependencies, including the adjudication by government courts or its other duly authorized officers of all civil and criminal causes falling within the laws and orders of the Government.
The Sultan of Sulu and his adherents and people of the Mohammedan faith shall have the same religious freedom had by all adherents of all other religious creeds, the practice of which is not in violation of the basic principles of the laws of the United States of America.
In testimony of the above mutual understanding we, the undersigned, the governor of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and the Sultan of Sulu, do hereby affix our signatures in permanent record thereof.
(Signed) Hadji Mohammad Jamalul Kiram
Sultan of Sulu
(Signed) Frank W. Carpenter
Witness to above:
(Signed) Dato Rajamuda
(Signed) Peter E. Traub
Colonel, United States Army
District Chief, Phillipine
(Signed) Hadji Bu’u
Special Assistant to the
Provincial Governor of Sulu
(Signed) Dato Mohammad
(Signed) Isidro Vamenta
(Signed) Abdullah Awang
Secretary to Sultan
(Signed) Ponciano Reyes
(Signed) Hadji Mohammad
(Signed) Guy N. Rohrer
Governor, Province of Sulu
(Signed) Panglima Tahil
(Signed) H. Gulamu Rasul
Aid-de-camp of the